Authors In Text

See examples below to learn about how multiple authors for one work are handled in APA parenthetical citations.

No Author

Include the first few words from the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year if no author is given. Article, chapter and web page titles go in quotation marks. Italicize periodical, book and report titles.

Temperature warming is one aspect of climate change, which results in increasingly frequent weather extremes ("Global Warming," 2008).

1 Author

Studies indicate that polar bear populations will dramatically decline as Arctic ice melts (Jedden, 2006).

2 Authors

Polar bears have been used by environmentalists as an icon of climate change in several campaigns. (Joleah & Lamb, 2007).

3-5 Authors

First citation in text:

Despite dire predictions, polar bear populations have actually increased over the past 50 years (Holden, Michaels, & White, 2008).

Subsequent citations:

Despite dire predictions, polar bear populations have actually increased over the past 50 years (Holden et al., 2008).

6+ Authors

Rising temperatures due to climate change are causing Artic ice to melt at rates never before observed (Jackson et al., 2005).