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Guide to citing and documenting sources in geography courses at Western Oregon University

  1. If you know or are already comfortable with an established and recognizeable system for citing and documenting sources - MLA, APA, ASA, Chicago/Turabian - you may use that system for papers and research projects in your geography courses at Western.
  2. If you do not know or are not comfortable with an existing system for citing and documenting sources, then use the following model. This model is adapted from The Chicago Manual of Style and follows guidelines for publication in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers.
  3. In-text citations.

    1. In-text citations should look like this (Author's last name year, page numbers) and should come at the end of a sentence.
    2. Example: The new priority of Canadian federal government is deficit reduction (Clarkson 2002, 135).

      Note: in this example page numbers are actually optional because the reference is general rather than specific. Page numbers are essential when citing a direct quote or a particular or unique piece of information. See the example in "c".

    3. When an author's name is incoporated into a sentence, there is no need to repeat it in the parenthetical reference. For example: Following the 1995 federal budget, Clarkson notes that, "Deficit reduction was to be permanent, not confined simply to the upside of the business cycle" (2002, 135).

    In the bibliography or reference list.

    1. Book:
      Clarkson, Stephen. 2002. Uncle Sam and us: Globalization, neoconservatism, and the Canadian state. Toronto and Washington, DC: University of 
      	Toronto Press and Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
    2. Book, edition other than the first:
      Agnew, John. 2003. Geopolitics: Re-visioning world politics. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.
    3. Essay in a book:
      Huston, Shaun. 2002. Murray Bookchin on Mars! The production of nature in Kim Stanley Robinson’s Mars trilogy. In Lost in space: Geographies of 
      	science fiction, eds. Rob Kitchin and James Kneale, 167-179. New York: Continuum.
    4. Journal article:
      Harris, R.C. 1971. Theory and synthesis in historical geography. The Canadian Geographer 15 (3): 157-172. Note: the "15" in this example is the volume number and the "3" is the issue number.
    5. Newspaper article:
      Mapes, Jeff, 2003. Wise to its future: A campus-based economy and liberal vigor keep Edutopia ahead of the curve. The Oregonian 18 November: 
      	A1, A11.

      It is also acceptable to leave newspaper articles out of the reference list so long as adequate information is provided in the in-text citation (author, publication, date, page).

    6. Magazine article:
      Butalia, Urvashi. 1999. Feminisim: Domestic murder and the golden sea. The New Internationalist, January/February, 18-20.

    Bibliographic entries for electronic resources.

    The standards for citing online resources, websites, web versions of print publications, and documents retrieved from online databases, are still being worked out and are often problematic because authors, dates, etc. are not always readily available.

    In general, follow these guidelines:

    1. Use the preceding examples as models, particularly if you are referencing an electronic equivalent of a book, journal or newspaper.
    2. Provide as much of the standard information, i.e., author, date, title, as possible.
    3. Date of access is an essential, particular piece of information for electronic resources.
    4. For web sources, be sure to provide the complete url or web address for the specific document. In other words, do not simply provide the homepage address or main url, provide the url for the particular document or page being cited.
    5. For documents retrieved from online databases, provide the name of the database. Some databases, like Academic Search Premier, assign id numbers to articles. Including this information is helpful, but not normally required.
    6. Examples:

      News article from a website:

      Heilprin, John. 2005. Bush 'Clear Skies' proposal hinders power plant cleanups, official says. ENN: Environmental News Network. 
      	http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=6964 (last accessed 19 January 2005).


      Center of the American West. Projects: Tracking the changing west. http://www.centerwest.org/publications/tracking_site/ (last accessed 
      	17 February 2005).

      Article retrieved from an online database:

      Huntington, Samuel. 1993. The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 13 pages. Academic Search Elite. EBSCOhost. Accession number: 
      	9308115868 (last accessed 17 February 2003).

  4. Additional guidance and information can be found from the following sources.

    In the Hamersly Library ...

    You can find The Chicago Manual of Style and Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Turabian's book is condensed from The Chicago Manual, and is intended for writers of academic papers.

    Note that both Chicago and Turabian cover more than one system of citation and documentation. Be sure to find the one that matches the examples covered here. It is currently referred to as the "scientific style."

    You can also find the Annals of the Association of American Geographers at the library.

    The campus Writing Center ...

    Is located in APSC 301 and holds evening office hours in HL 116.

    When getting help at the Writing Center be sure to show them appropriate examples of the style of citation and documentation you are using. This will help them give you the guidance you need.

    Online resources include ...

    This page at the CSU-Dominguez Hills Library. It delivers a tutorial in citing and documenting sources. It covers basic questions such as why you need to cite sources, when you need to cite sources, and what to include in a bibliographic entry.

    This page at the Williams College Libraries offers additional examples and guidance from The Chicago Manual of Style for the author-date style of citation and documentation.

    This page at the WOU Writing Center offfers guidance in the use of APA, MLA, and ASA styles, as well as links to other resources.

Shaun Huston's web site is at: http://www.wou.edu/~hustons

Created by Anne-Marie Deitering and Shaun Huston

Please address comments or questions to hustons@wou.edu