Research Methods Exercise

Part I: Instructions:

First, for the following hypotheses if you could use the experimental method to investigate the relationship, identify the Independent (IV) and Dependent Variables (DV). If the correlational method is appropriate, identify the measured variables.

Second, operationalize each unclear independent variable in terms of PRECISE experimental manipulations, and operationalize each unclear dependent or correlational variable in terms of precise observations or measures.

Hypothesis #1. 18 - 24 year old women are more attracted to men with tattoos than men without tattoos.

If experimental, then:

I.V. Name ___________________________________________________________________

D.V. Name __________________________________________________________________

If correlational, then:

Measured Variable Names:

1. __________________________________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________________________________

Operational definitions:

1. __________________________________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________________________________

Hypothesis #2. Sex before marriage improves the marriage.

If experimental, then:

I.V. Name _____________________________________________________________________

D.V. Name ____________________________________________________________________

If correlational, then:

Measured Variable Names:

1. ____________________________________________________________________________

2. ____________________________________________________________________________

Operational definitions:

1. _____________________________________________________________________________

2. _____________________________________________________________________________

Hypothesis #3. People learn more when they study in a quiet versus noisy place.

If experimental, then:

a) I.V. Name _____________________________________________________________________

D.V. Name ______________________________________________________________________

If correlational, then:

Measured Variable Names:

1. ______________________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________________

Operational definitions:

1. ______________________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________________

Hypothesis #4. People who exercise regularly sleep better at night.

If experimental, then:

I.V. Name ________________________________________________________________________

D.V. Name _______________________________________________________________________

If correlational, then:

Measured Variable Names:

1. _______________________________________________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________________________________________

Operational definitions:

1. _______________________________________________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________________________________________

Hypothesis #5. Eating sugar decreases physical strength.

If experimental, then:

I.V. Name ________________________________________________________________________

D.V. Name _______________________________________________________________________

If correlational, then:

Measured Variable Names:

1. ______________________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________________

Operational definitions:

1. ______________________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________________

Part II: Instruction: For each section...

Identify the independent and dependent variable first.

Then look for one serious confounded factor that threatens the experimentís internal validity.

Last, suggest how the confounded factor could be controlled to"clean up" the study.

Section 1:

Dr. Jane Smith wondered whether the sex of an examiner influenced responses by male participants on the Attitude Toward Women scale. The ATW scale measures whether an individual has liberal or conservative attitudes toward womenís rights. She asked Dr. Tatsuhiko Toyota to administer half of the questionnaires so she could compare the ATW score for males tested by a male vs. female examiner. Dr. Smith found that her respondents had much more liberal ATW scores than Dr. Toyota's. She concluded that men "act more liberal to gain approval from women; whereas, they reveal their true 'macho" selves to other men.

Are the researcher's conclusions warranted (yes/no)? ____________

Name the independent variable(s):

Name the dependent variable(s):

Name the confounded variable(s):

What is one method to "unconfound" the experiment?

Section 2:

Fred Rogers wanted to test a new "sing along" method to teach math to fourth graders (e.g. "I Love to Multiply to the tune of God Bless America). He used the sing along method in his first period class. His sixth period students continued solving math problems with the old method. At the end of the term, Mr. Rogers found that the first period class scored significantly lower than the sixth period class on a mathematics achievement test. He concluded that his sing along method was a total failure.

Are the researcher's conclusions warranted (yes/no)? ____________

Name the independent variable(s):

Name the dependent variable(s):

Name the confounded variable(s):

What is one method to "unconfound" the experiment?